康德判斷力批判

      
康德判斷力批判 (Critique of Judgment) 的美的分析論 (Analytic of the Beautiful) 嘗試解決一個二律背反問題,同時也以這個背反問題為批判出發點,
背反意指兩個看似矛盾實則沒有矛盾只是被錯置的兩個律則,這裡的背反是:

審美判斷 (Judgment of Taste) 是純粹主觀的;審美判斷是普遍的。

§1一開始康德就說:審美判斷是純粹主觀的(aesthetic),
aesthetic一字在康德思想中具有兩義:與感性相關、判斷基礎純然存於主體,這裡兩義具含。
他更進一步指出,所有的表象(包含感官的表象)的關聯都可以是客觀的、關聯於客體的,
唯有愉悅與否的感受的表象只能關聯於主體、只能是主觀的。

§2康德開始要釐清可以關聯於客體的感受表象與只能關聯於主體的感受表象的差別,
而差異的判準就是:有無與利害(interest)相關。
利害相關,便與概念有關,便是透過知性(understanding)將表象關聯於客體,
這便失去將表象關聯於純粹主體自身的條件。
不與利害相關,便是不與概念有關,這才有將表象關聯於主體的條件。

審美判斷的四個機竅 / Four Moments of a Judgment of Taste

「第一機竅(環節)」 質:品味(鑑賞力)是全憑不帶利害關心的喜歡或不喜歡的感受去判斷一個對象,或者去形成對一個對象的確定意識。
First Moment of a Judgment of Taste, As to Its Quality

「第二機竅(環節)」 量:美的對象不需要任何概念而被普遍地喜歡。
Second Moment of a Judgment of Taste, As to Its Quantity

「第三機竅(環節)」 關係:美是一個對象的合目的性形式,且必須在該對象的感知裡面沒有帶著特定目的的意識。
Third Moment of a Judgment of Taste, As to the Relation of Purposes That Is Taken into Consideration in Them

「第四機竅(環節)」 樣態:美的對象得在沒有任何概念的情況下被認知為一個必然令人喜歡的對象。
Fourth Moment of a Judgment of Taste, As to the Modality of the Liking for the Object

概念簡述

批判 / Critique :
在先驗哲學的架構下,以某認識活動對該認識活動自身的認識,藉以確定該認識活動的確為一必要的、根源的認識活動,進而在整個整體的活動當中找到、確定該活動的位置(與系統的官能)並且看清楚該活動的界域。

先驗 / Transcendental :
凡先驗的,就是先於經驗但使經驗成為可能並給予經驗必然形式的,而在經驗中於是可稱呼它作即於經驗的。先驗關係是一種特殊的因果關係,是因果同時的關係,有別於認識(認知)當中的異時因果關係。

判斷 / Judgment :
經由判斷活動,心智的內在確定性形成,而形成意識(這是種特殊的因果關係,切不可解讀為一般的因果關係)。是心智在未定狀態與確定狀態之間的過渡。


先驗哲學 / Transcendental Philosophy :
The philosopher who deals with transcendental philosophy tries to discover what enables us to make a priori judgments, especially synthetic ones: judgments in which the predicate is not already contained in the subject, as it is in analytic judgments, but which are nonetheless (wholly or partly) a priori rather than empirical. (See the Critique of Pure Reason, A 298-302 = B 355-59.)

Presentation/Representation (Latin) / Vorstellung (German): "inner determinations of our mind in this or that relation of time" (A 197/B 242)

認知能力 / Cognitive Powers , inclusive of imagination and understanding, sometimes are referred as Presentational Powers, as well.

Idea vs. Ideal : Idea properly means a rational concept, and ideal the (re)presentation of an individual being [existence] as adequate to an idea (§17).
In the definition of ideal, the representation is analyzed into two components: normal (standard) idea and rational idea, where a normal idea is a representation (as an individual intuition) of the standard representative of one kind, while a rational idea stands for a concept which we can never find an adequate intuition.

For exemple, the ideal cup is an
{COMPONENT1 imagined representation of an individual existance-- by which we in a linguistic community judge an instance of cup as a cup intuitively--} as
{COMPONENT2 adequate to the idea CUP (perhaps I am allowed to put it this way, the soul, the function of the cup as the cup is thought for)-- by which we in a linguistic community judge an instance of cup as a cup conceptually--}.


美的分析論 (Analytic of the Beautiful) 分節介紹

「第一機竅」 質:無關心性 (共5節)
§1 A Judgment of Taste Is Aesthetic

Quote: This power does not contribute anything to cognition, but merely compares the given presentation in the subject with the entire presentational power, of which the mind becomes conscious when it feels its own state.

§2 The Liking That Determines a Judgment of Taste Is Devoid of All Interest
§3 A Liking for the Agreeable Is Connected with Interest
§4 A Liking for the Good Is Connected with Interest

Explication of the Beautiful Inferred from the First Moment
Taste is the ability to judge an object, or a way of presenting it, by means of a liking or disliking devoid of all interest. The object of such a liking is called beautiful.

「第二機竅」 量:普遍性 (共4節)
§6 The Beautiful Is What Is Presented without Concepts as the Object of a Universal Liking
Quote: ...this universality cannot arise from concepts. For from concepts there is no transition to the feeling of pleasure or displeasure (except in pure practical laws; but these must carry an interest with them, while none is connected with pure judgment of taste).

§7 Comparison of the Beautiful with the Agreeable and the Good in Terms of the Above Characteristic
§8 In a Judgment of Taste the Universality of the Liking Is Presented Only as Subjective
§9 Investigation of the Question Whether in a Judgment of Taste the Feeling of Pleasure Precedes the Judging of the Object or the Judging Precedes the Pleasure

Explication of the Beautiful Inferred from the Second Moment
Beautiful is what, without a concept, is liked universally.

「第三機竅」 關係:合目的性 (共8節)
§10 On Purposiveness in General
§11 A Judgment of Taste Is Based on Nothing but the Form of Purposiveness of an Object (or of the Way of Presenting It)
§12 A Judgment of Taste Rests on A Priori Bases
§13 A Pure Judgment of Taste Is Independent of Charm and Emotion
§14 Elucidation by Examples
§15 A Judgment of Taste Is Wholly Independent of the Concept of Perfection
§16 A Judgment of Taste by Which We Declare an Object Beautiful under the Condition of a Determinate Concept Is Not Pure
...
...

「第四機竅」 樣態:必然性 (共5節)

崇高的分析論 (Analytic of the Sublime) 分節介紹

§23 Transition from the Power of Judging the Beautiful to That of Judging the Sublime

康德判斷力批判讀書會

重整中。

目前進度

重整中。

投票活動



Study Plan


Part I Critique of Aesthetic Judgment
Division I Analytic of Aesthetic Judgment
Book I Analytic of the Beautiful (§1 ~§22, 22 sections): 11 weeks
Book II Anayltic of the Sublime (§23 ~§54, 32 sections): 16 weeks
Division II Dialectic of Aesthetic Judgment (§55~ §60, 6 sections): 3 weeks
For part one, about 7.5 months

Part II Critique of Teleological Judgment (§61, 1 section): 1 week
Divison I Analytic of Teleological Judgment (§62 ~§68, 7sections) 3 weeks
Division II Dialectic of Teleological Judgment (§69 ~§78, 10 sections) 5 weeks
Appendix: Methodology of Teleological Judgment (§79 ~§91, 13 sections) 7 weeks
For part two, about 4 months

The Introduction (9 sections) 4 weeks
The First Introduction (12 sections) 6 weeks
For the introduction, about 2.5 months




Primary Text:

康德:判斷力批判
(我目前手頭有德文版(Akademie Ausgabe, WBG reprintd)、三個英譯本(Werner Pluhar, Cambridge, Bernard)、及中文鄧譯,有需要可以視進度掃描e-mail給各位。)

Secondary Text:

Wenzel, Christian Helmut. An Introduction to Kant's Aesthetics. Core Concepts and Problems. Maldon, Oxford & Victoria: 2005, Blackwell. (李淳玲中文譯本聯經即將出版)


線上資源

李淳玲談康德:

文哲概述康德美學及新近文獻整理:

康德判斷力批判的論壇文章
[ 發表文章 ]
The Sublime - some thoughts boris2011/12/30
Re: 戲劇的概念與體驗 - Re: 穿過樹根往下探就能看見祖先 gustav2011/10/15
Re: Purposiveness (purposefulness) and Kant's "as-if" metaphor (Re: 試問怎麼讀《判斷力批判》?) gustav2011/05/12
Re: Purposiveness (purposefulness) and Kant's "as-if" metaphor (Re: 試問怎麼讀《判斷力批判》?) boris2011/05/12
Re: Purposiveness (purposefulness) and Kant's "as-if" metaphor (Re: 試問怎麼讀《判斷力批判》?) gustav2011/05/12
Re: Purposiveness (purposefulness) and Kant's "as-if" metaphor (Re: 試問怎麼讀《判斷力批判》?) boris2011/05/12
Re: Purposiveness (purposefulness) and Kant's "as-if" metaphor (Re: 試問怎麼讀《判斷力批判》?) boris2011/05/11
Re: Purposiveness (purposefulness) and Kant's "as-if" metaphor (Re: 試問怎麼讀《判斷力批判》?) gustav2011/05/11
Purposiveness (purposefulness) and Kant's "as-if" metaphor (Re: 試問怎麼讀《判斷力批判》?) boris2011/05/10
§1 A Judgment of Taste Is Aesthetic / Kant's Critique of Judgment Hsinping2011/02/20
Re: The Section 5 of Kant's 《Critique of Judgment》 HP2010/01/17
Critique of Judgment: §5 Comparison of the Three Sorts of Liking, Which Differ in Kind / Translated by Werner Pluhar HP2010/01/15
文哲〈康德美學:概要與新近文獻〉(下) gustav2009/12/03
文哲〈康德美學:概要與新近文獻〉(上) gustav2009/12/03
Re: 《康德判斷力批判》第11節第1段閱讀筆記與問題 gustav2009/11/02
《康德判斷力批判》第11節第1段閱讀筆記與問題 HP2009/11/01
[一種epistemological/認識的後設分析] Re: 薛香川對莫拉克颱風的看法:「父親節耶~~父親節耶~~拜託~~~ 」 gustav2009/08/19
The Forth Paragraph is So Transcendental HP2009/07/26
試問怎麼讀《判斷力批判》? gustav2009/06/27
文哲 Christian Wenzel:康德美學以及近期相關文獻 gustav2009/06/02
[ 瀏覽文章 ]

康德判斷力批判的分類地圖


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