英文介係詞用法
      

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介係詞的使用關乎於使用者想要表達的動作或動態的一種關係與方向性,而「關係」在不同語言的思考模式當中有相當大的差異,這是我們在學習一個外語時不容易掌握介詞的原因,而且使得介詞成為基礎語法之外最大的語法障礙。在我們使用一個外語的過程中,我們應該由觀察這個外語慣用者所表現的思考動作與事物之間「關係」的方式去掌握介詞的語感。

主題分類

本主題以整理各式介係詞於英文中之用法,並加以中文翻譯及例句說明。

主題分類快速查詢:介係詞片語片語動詞動詞片語有 BE 動詞和介係詞的片語 (目前約整理100則片語用法)

介係詞片語

at the speed of... 以......的速度
at an/the altitude of... 以......的高度
at the level of... 以......高度/階層
at the cost / sacrifice of... 以......的價格、代價
at the age of... 在...的年紀時;在...歲時
at the risk of N/Ving (= run the risk of...) 冒著......的危險

by heart 確實地記得、背下來 (learn by heart)
We are all required to learn the poem by heart.

by means of 藉由

from now on 從今以後 | from then on 從那以後
Now I have learned my lesson and , from now on, I will never fail to eat breakfast.
Dan won the government lottery. From then on, he never got together with his old friends.

out of breath 喘不過氣來
out of circulation 不再流通的(書籍);不參加社交活動的
out of danger 脫離危險
out of gear 失常
out of joint 脫臼的
out of the blue 意外地
out of the ordinary 不平常的
out of the picture 不相干的
out of the question 不可能的
out of the way 不同尋常的
out of the wood 脫離險境

on exhibition = on display  展出中

on the contray 相反地

in pursuit of + N 追捕;追求

in possession of... 擁有...

in seventh heaven 非常快樂

in the form of 以...形式

in turn 接續;轉而
by turns 輪流地;交接地

deal with sb 和某人打交道、應付某人 / deal with sth 處理、應付某事

a man of principle 有原則的人

against one's conscience 違背某人的良知(心)

hit the brakes = step on the brakes 踩煞車

turn a blind eye to  對......視若無睹
turn a deaf ear to    對......充耳不聞

resist + Ving = refuse to V  抗拒......
I couldn't resist having some more ice cream.
I refused to do it.

stay up + Ving  熬夜
He stayed up late last night studying for the midterm.

with a view to + Ving = with an eye to + Ving 為了要......
= in order to V = for the purpose of + Ving = so as to V (so as to 不可置於句首)
With a view to improving his spoken English, James decided to go to the States this summer vacation.

with regard to + N/Ving = in regard to N/Ving  關於

片語動詞

adjust (oneself) to + N/Ving = adapt (oneself) to + N/ving (使)適應

apeal to sb 吸引某人

blend in (with + N)  融入;綜合

break in 強行闖入:打斷(談話等)

breathe life into  給...注入生命

call on + 人 拜訪某人 | call at + 地方 拜訪某地(少用)
call off = cancel 取消

feel like + N 感覺像...

feel like + Ving = would like to + V 想要...
I feel like taking a walk today. = I would like to take a way today.

live up to... = meet... 符合...(的期望等)
You should not pressure yourself to try to live up to others' expectations of you.

look into = investigate 調查 |  look over = examine 檢查 |  look at = watch  看

concede to = yield to = give in to 對......讓步;向......認輸
The knight wouldn't concede to / yield to / give in to his opponent.

clean up (clean the mess up / clean up the mess) 將......打掃乾淨

come in tied for + 名次 + with... 和...以...名次為平手
Wendy came in tied for second place with Judy in this championship.

confess to N/Ving 坦承

cross out 刪除

drop out(of sth) 退出(比賽/學業)

do/cause damage to 造成破壞 

get off/on  下/上...(飛機、火車、公車等大型交通工具)
get out of / get in(to)  下/上...(汽車、計程車等小型交通工具)

get insight into 洞悉/深入了解

learn about = learn of 獲知、獲悉

make up for... = compensate for...  補償......
The old man in really active; he is trying to make up for lost time, I guess.

nod off = doze off 打瞌睡

pair up 組成對;配對

pick out 挑選出;揀出 He brought a great number of ties for me to choose, and I picked out a red one.
pick at 挑剔
pick over 檢查並從中挑選

pore over 瀏覽;鑽研

put out  熄滅
Please put out your cigarette in this ash tray.
put off  推遲
To put off something until tomorrow is to postpone it until tomorrow.
put in  投入

provide sb with sth = provide sth for sb  提供某人某物

reckon on N/Ving  料想、寄望...
When Alexander was twenty, Philip was assassinated any many expected Macedonia's (馬其頓) power to die with him. They hadn't reckoned on Alexander's ability.

reflect on... 反省、仔細考慮......
New Year is the time when people reflect on what the have done in the last twelve months.

result in = lead to = bring about = give rise to = cause... 造成、導致......

succeed in Ving 成功做到......
Did you succeed in persuading her to come to the party?
succeed to... 繼承......
Mr. Smith succeeded to his father's position as company president.
succeed sb as... 繼承某人擔任......
Who will succeed Barack Obama as president of the U.S.?

set in  開始;來臨

stand out as + N  以(身分、特色)脫穎而出

sort through 查看並分類整理
sort out/sort..out 整理;將...分類

take over 接管

take part in+活動 參加(活動等)

think of 考慮
think over 仔細考慮 / think over again and again 再三考慮
 This is a good offer. Think it over carefully and give me your decision tomorrow.

tired out 精疲力竭,累垮了
After a hard day's labor, Johnny was tired out.

try on...  試穿衣物
You had better try on the shirt before buying it.
try out... 試用機械等物
After trying out the car, we decided not to buy it.

tune in 收聽或收看某一節目
tune in to + 頻率/頻道 調頻率/頻道至...

engage in 從事

enroll in 註冊/登記上(學校、課程)

expose A to B 使A接觸到B:將A暴露於B中

date back to + 時間  追溯到...(時間)

participate in = partake in = take part in 參加;參與

insist on + N/Ving  堅持

indulge in 沉迷於...

有介係詞的動詞片語

blame sb for sth = blame sth on sb 將某事歸咎某人
Don't blame others for your mistakes. = Don't blame your mistakes on others.

HARM
do harm to...  對......有害
Exhaust fumes (廢氣) from cars do great harm to the environment.
There is no harm in V-ing  無妨、沒有害處
There is no farm in voicing your opinion.
come down with 染上...(疾病)

HAVE
have a crush on...  迷戀...... (crush 作動詞時為「擊潰」、「瓦解」)
You can say that you have a crush on a person if you have a feeling for him/her and you care what is happening in his/her life.
have a dislike for... = dislike + N/Ving 討厭、不喜歡
have patience with... = be patient with... 對...有耐心、有耐性
have a fight with sb = have a quarrel with sb 和某人吵架
have...made to order  訂做某物 (custom-made 訂做的)
The actress always has her dresses and suits made to order.
have no intention of Ving 無意做
have no option but to V = have no choice/alternative but to V  除了...別無選擇

HELP
help sb with something  幫助某人某事
The professor's students helped him with his new book.
help with something  幫忙某事
Husbands nowadays have to help with the household chores.

PACK
pack A into B  將 A 包裝到 B
We packed the books into a box and mailed them to our friend's house.
be packed with... = be crammed with...  擠滿著......
The concert hall was packed with people.

become/be popular with/among (變得)受...歡迎

call on/upon sb to do sth 號召某人去...;要求某人去...

confront sb about/with sth 與某人對質某事

experiment with/on + sth/sb 用某人、某事做實驗

take sth into mind  將某事納入考量

hold on to + N 持續;堅持

stand a good chance (of Ving) 很有(......的)希望
I think we stand a good change of winning the contest.

take good care of oneself 好好照顧自己

vanish without (a) trace = disappear without (a) trace  消失無蹤

get acquainted with 和...相識;認識...

root for... 為......加油、打氣
Only a few of fans were rooting for the underdog but he won anyway.

put in a good word for sb 替某人美言幾句
speak well of sb 說某人的好話

set a good example for sb 為某人樹立好榜樣(有時用 to)

stick up for sb  支持...:捍衛...

keep in touch with = keep in contact with  和...保持連絡

keep up with sb 跟上某人,不落後某人

keep track of  掌握...;記錄...

win out 勝出

wait on sb hand and foot 服侍得無微不至

top A with B 在A上面放置B;將B放在A之上

有 BE 動詞的介係詞片語

ALERT
be alert to N/Ving...  留心......;對......警覺
You should be alert to the pitfalls of buying stocks.
be on the alert  警覺中,戒備中
The police were on the alert after the convict (囚犯) escaped from prison.

be absorbed in = be wrapped up in = be engrossed in = be lost in  專心於......
Carlos is wrapped up in his creative writing. (專心於創作)

be amazed at... 對......感到驚奇
be surprised at... 對......驚訝
be astonished at... 對......吃驚
be astounded at... 對......震驚

be ashamed to V / be ashamed of N/Ving  對......感到可恥
The teenage girl was ashamed to admit that she was pregnant.
As they say, "Even Homer sometimes nodes." Should we, therefore, be ashamed to be wrong?
The convict's (犯人的) parents were ashamed of having such a wicked son.

be addicted to + N/Ving 對...上癮;沉迷於...

be bored with... = be tired of...

be confident of... = have confidence with... 對...有信心

be consistent with 與...一致

be compatible with 和...相容

be coated with  被(一層)...覆蓋

be confused about  對...感到困惑

be classify as 被分類為

be delivered of...  產下......
She was delivered of a healthy boy.

be essential to + N/Ving  對...必要、不可或缺的

be filled with = be full of 充滿......
be crowded with 充滿/擠滿

be in the habit of Ving = have the habit of Ving 有...的習慣 / make it a rule to V 養成...的習慣
If you are in the habit of watching CNN, you probably know who Larry King is.

be around the corner = be near at hand = be coming soon = be fast approaching 即將來臨

be impressed with...  對......印象深刻

be indispensable to...  對......是不可或缺的
1.
A good police force is indispensable to any modern society. 2. Electricity has long been indispensable to our daily lives.

be indigenous to + 地方 = be native to + 地方 原產於某地,是某地方特有的

be grateful / thankful / obliged / indebted to sb for sth 為某事而對某人表示感激
I will always be grateful to my parents for all they have done for me.

MAKE
be made of...   由......所製成(仍保有原料的性質或形狀)
This shirt is made of pure silk.
be made from...  由......所製成(不保留原料的性質或形狀)
Most wines are made from grapes.

be off to + 地方名詞 出發到某地
Wendy is off to New Zealand tomorrow.

be protective of... 保護......
Parents should not be too protective of their children.

be proud of = take pride in = pride oneself on  對....感到驕傲,以...自豪

be pressed for 迫切需要(金錢、時間)

be satisfied with = be content with = be contented with = be pleased with 對......感到滿意

be suspicious of...  對...起疑心

be true of ... 是......的實照
What he said about Americans is not really true of all Americans.

be obsessed with 滿腦子都為...所佔據

be renowned as + 身分 = be famous as + 身分 以某身分為人所知

英文成語

Cast your bread upon the waters.  為善不圖回報。
= Do good deeds without expecting any reward.

Think of danger in times of peace. 居安思危。

其它

a horde of 一大群......

好書推薦

商務印書公司《Collins Cobuild 英語語法系列(一).介詞》

參考網站

中興大學「懂更懂」英文學習網 http://dgdel.nchu.edu.tw/
愛詞霸寫作句庫 http://dj.iciba.com/

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